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Thursday 21st February 2019

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ScienceDaily - Health

Junk food is linked to both moderate and severe psychological distress

The study revealed that California adults who consumed more unhealthy food were also more likely to report symptoms of either moderate or severe psychological distress than their peers who consume a healthier diet.

Why a blow to the chest can kill or save you

It is still a mystery why a blow to the chest can kill some people yet save others. We may be one step closer to an answer, however, thanks to a device that can replicate the experience in the laboratory.

New iridium catalyst enables efficient selective synthesis of valuable drug ingredients

The researchers found that transient formation of hydrogen bonding between a substrate and the catalyst induced such high segregation in the reaction. By using inexpensive and readily available feedstock hydrocarbons, the researchers produced a group of chiral lactams in different shapes. Their diverse structures allow lactams to correspond to different pharmaceutical drugs.

New compound offers superior therapeutic approach to treat MS

Previous studies have shown that estrogens and estrogen-like compounds reduce multiple sclerosis-like inflammation and disability in mice. At first glance these treatments appear promising, but they carry a host of negative side effects, from feminizing male mice to increasing the risk of cancer, heart disease and stroke. An interdisciplinary team of scientists have piggy-backed on this approach with a new concept that side steps the negative side effects while alleviating symptoms.

People with osteoporosis should avoid spinal poses in yoga, study says

Yoga postures that flex the spine beyond its limits may raise the risk of compression fractures in people with thinning bones, according to new research from Mayo Clinic. The results appear in Mayo Clinic Proceedings..

Prenatal exposure to phthalates linked to motor skill deficiencies at age 11

Scientists report motor skills problems in children exposed during pregnancy to plasticizer chemicals known as phthalates that are widely used in personal care products like moisturizers and lipstick, as well as plastic containers and children's toys.

Consuming garlic and onions may lower colorectal cancer risk

Consumption of allium vegetables -- which include garlic, leeks, and onions -- was linked with a reduced risk of in colorectal cancer in a study of men and women in China.

Radio-tracking dolphins reveals intimate details about their behavior

The most extensive radio-tracking effort of bottlenose dolphins in the Indian River Lagoon using radio-telemetry reveals new and surprising information about how they use their habitats, how they spend their time, and how they interact with their own species. Researchers conducted radio-tracking by boat, with assistance from a Cessna 172 aircraft, and visually located and followed nine dolphins several times per week. Over the course of 122 hours of observation, they compiled a total of 1,390 scan samples.

Coping with cancer: Partners can reframe challenging situations

Spouses can help breast cancer patients with coping by positively reframing the cancer experience and other negative experiences. In general, positive reframing -- finding the silver lining -- was associated with less stress. Researchers suggest the findings can be extended to a broader population.

Dietary fiber helps clump material in your gut

A new study in mice shows dietary fiber promotes the aggregation of gut particles.

Study finds increase in calls to US Poison Control Centers for kratom exposure

A new study found that there were more than 1,800 calls to US Poison Control Centers regarding exposures to kratom from January 2011 through December 2017.

Review of modern cases of leprosy

Leprosy has a history that has spanned centuries and societies across the globe. Yet, it continues to be a problem -- even in the modern era. Sufferers from the chronic and infectious skin disease still face the social stigma and lack of medical care that people have endured since the origins of the disease itself. Although leprosy can be treated, the World Health Organization reported 216,108 cases in 2016.

American drug overdose death rates the highest among wealthy nations

A new study found that the United States has the highest drug overdose death rates among a set of high-income countries. The study found that drug overdose death rates in the United States are 3.5 times higher on average when compared to 17 other high-income counties. The study is the first to demonstrate that the drug overdose epidemic is contributing to the widening gap in life expectancy between the United States and other high-income countries.

New robotic sensor technology can diagnose reproductive health problems in real-time

Researchers have developed new robotic sensor technology that has the capability to diagnose women's reproductive health problems in real-time.

Evening exercise will not ruin sleep and might even reduce appetite

With growing time demands, many middle-aged adults are finding time to engage in exercise increasingly difficult. For many, even the thought of fitting exercise in after a busy day at work can be as tiring as it is unappetizing. The standing belief that high-intensity exercise should be avoided in the early evening due to its effect on sleep only serves to act as another barrier to exercise at this time.

New insight on potent HIV antibody could improve vaccine design

A new observation highlights the importance of previously unstudied mutations that arises early in bnAbs, giving the antibodies the flexibility to adapt to changes in the virus's outer envelope protein structure. This flexibility enables the antibody to dock on diverse strains of the virus and more potently neutralize them.

EEG helps scientists predict epileptic seizures minutes in advance

A new study shows that acetate, an acid found in some foods, may help doctors intervene when seizures are imminent. Scientists can monitor the brain activity of a specific cell type to predict epileptic seizures four minutes in advance in humans and mice.

Native California medicinal plant may hold promise for treating Alzheimer's

The medicinal powers of aspirin, digitalis, and the anti-malarial artemisinin all come from plants. A discovery of a potent neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory chemical in a native California shrub may lead to a treatment for Alzheimer's disease based on a compound found in nature.

CASSINI Trial publishes data on preventing blood clots in cancer patients

Researchers have published the first clinical study investigating the use of the direct oral anticoagulant, rivaroxaban, to prevent blood clots in patients with cancer at high-risk. The study found no significant reduction in venous thromboembolism or death in the overall 180-day trial period; however, the researchers did observe a lower incidence of these events while patients were actively on the study drug, or during the on-treatment period.

The new exercise trend that's made for everyone

Bringing the science of high intensity interval training (HIIT) into everyday life could be the key to helping unfit, overweight people get more of the exercise they need to improve their health, according to researchers.

New 'smart drug' shows promise for metastatic triple-negative breast cancer

A clinical trial has found that patients responded to a new 'smart drug' for women with an aggressive form of breast cancer.

Salt could be a key factor in allergic immune reactions

Researchers have demonstrated in cell cultures that salt leads to the formation of Th2 cells. These immune cells are active in allergic conditions such as atopic dermatitis. The team also detected elevated salt concentrations in the skin of patients.

Scientists identify unique subtype of eczema linked to food allergy

Scientists have found that children with both atopic dermatitis and food allergy have structural and molecular differences in top layers of skin near the eczema lesions, whereas children with atopic dermatitis alone don't. Defining these differences may help identify children at risk for developing food allergies.

Peer support, healing hands may curb prescription opioid misuse

A program offering group support, acupuncture, mindfulness, massage and gentle exercise may help prevent patients on prescription opioids from spiraling down to drug misuse, overdose and death, according to a new study.

Massive database traces mammal organ development, cell by single cell

A new study has traced an important period of organ formation, cell by cell, in the developing mouse. The study is by far the largest dataset of its kind to date.

Scientists identify genetic mechanism involved in how females inherit traits

Female cells randomly and permanently shut off one of the X chromosomes during embryonic development through a process called X chromosome inactivation, or XCI. Just how XCI occurs has remained unclear -- until now. New research performed on mouse female embryonic stem cells traces the origin of XCI to an RNA splicing mechanism.

Bat influenza viruses could infect humans

Bats don't only carry the deadly Ebola virus, but are also a reservoir for a new type of influenza virus. These newly discovered flu viruses could potentially also attack the cells of humans and livestock, researchers have now shown.

Nitisinone increases melanin in people with albinism

A small pilot clinical study suggests that the drug nitisinone increases melanin production in some people with oculocutaneous albinism type 1B (OCA-1B), a rare genetic disease that causes pale skin and hair and poor vision. Increased melanin could help protect people with the condition against the sun's UV rays and promote the development of normal vision.

Genetic clues to high rates of asthma in those of African ancestry

In the largest study of its kind, researchers have found new clues into the parts of the human genome associated with the higher rates of asthma in those of African ancestry.

Vigorous exercise, fasting, hormones improve elimination of toxic, misfolded, unnecessary proteins in mouse and human cells

A new study shows vigorous exercise and fasting improve the ability of human and mouse cells to remove misfolded, toxic, unnecessary proteins. The findings reveal a previously unknown mechanism that activates the cells' protein-disposal machinery, allowing them to adapt their protein content to shifting demands and new conditions.

Viruses that linger in gut could trigger type 1 diabetes

Researchers provide new evidence supporting an association between elevated levels of enteroviruses in the intestinal tracts of children and islet autoimmunity, a precursor to type 1 diabetes.

New therapeutic approach to combat African sleeping sickness

Scientists working in a range of disciplines joined forces to identify a new approach to combat African sleeping sickness. Fundamental research has revealed a promising strategy to develop a suitable agent.

Teens need to text, talk with parents often to maintain youth resiliency after a divorce

Texting, FaceTime and other popular communication methods among teens may help build supportive parent-youth relationships after a divorce, according to a family studies researcher.

The 'blue' in blueberries can help lower blood pressure

A new study has found that eating 200g of blueberries every day for a month can lead to an improvement in blood vessel function and a decrease in systolic blood pressure in healthy people.

Can a nerve injury trigger ALS?

Researchers have demonstrated that a peripheral nerve injury can trigger the onset and spread of the disease in an animal model of ALS.

The smelling of food controls cellular recycling and affects life expectancy

The smelling of food affects physiology and aging, according to research conducted on the model organism, the roundworm. Surprisingly, this relationship is due to a single pair of olfactory neurons.

Cocktail of common antibiotics can fight resistant E. coli

Scientists have discovered that a combination of two common antibiotics is able to eliminate multi-drug resistant E. coli causing urinary tract infections. This combination treatment could become an effective measure against clinically relevant antibiotic resistant urinary tract infections.

New AI able to identify and predict the development of cancer symptom clusters

Cancer patients who undergo chemotherapy could soon benefit from a new AI that is able to identify and predict the development of different combinations of symptoms -- helping to alleviate much of the distress caused by their occurrence and severity.

Health-related Google searches doubled in week before ER visits

Patients are often willing to share their Google search histories with medical researchers, revealing that many people do searches on their condition well before deciding to go to the hospital.

Antibody therapy training phagocytes to destroy tumors now tested on patients

An immunotherapeutic antibody therapy re-educates macrophages to activate passivated cytotoxic T cells to kill cancer. The antibody therapy prevented the growth of tumours in several mouse models. The development of the therapy has now progressed to patient testing in a phase I/II clinical trial.

Melanoma brain metastases are immunosuppressive with treatment-resistant metabolism

Melanoma tumors that have spread to the brain are equipped to thwart immunotherapies and targeted therapies that succeed against tumors growing in other sites. Researchers report that the heavy reliance of these tumors on a specific metabolic pathway presents a potentially new therapeutic against these lethal tumors.

Activating tooth regeneration in mice

Most reptiles and fish have multiple sets of teeth during their lifetime. However, most mammals, such as humans, have only one set of replacement teeth and some mammals, like mice, have only a single set with no replacement. This diversity raises both evolutionary questions -- how did different tooth replacement strategies evolve? -- and developmental ones -- which mechanisms prevent replacement teeth in animals that lost them?

Researchers define cells used in bone repair

Research has uncovered the roles of two types of cells found in the vessel walls of fat tissue and described how these cells may help speed bone repair.

An intricate interaction: Dietary fatty acid intake influences hypertension risk

Hypertension is an important public health problem that can lead to life-threatening cardiovascular events, including heart attack and stroke. Here, the relationship between dietary intake of n-6 fatty acids and hypertension, using blood pressure measurement and a diet history questionnaire. A research team found that increased dietary intake of n-6 fatty acids positively impacted hypertension, but that this benefit was limited to individuals without impaired glucose tolerance.

Young bone marrow rejuvenates aging mouse brains

A new study has found that transplanting the bone marrow of young laboratory mice into old mice prevented cognitive decline in the old mice, preserving their memory and learning abilities. The findings support an emerging model that attributes cognitive decline, in part, to aging of blood cells, which are produced in bone marrow.

Steep rise in self-poisonings in children and adolescents

Self-harm from self-poisoning in children and adolescents is not only increasing but starting at a younger age, finds new research. The study found there were more than 33,500 self-poisonings in young people in Australia from 2006 - 2016, with a 98 per cent increase over this time.

Extinguishing fear memories relies on an unusual change to DNA

Researchers have discovered a DNA modification that enhances our ability to extinguish fear. The findings could help guide the development of new treatments for fear-related anxiety disorders. Professor Timothy Bredy of UQ's Queensland Brain Institute (QBI) said while fear is an important survival mechanism which uses cues in the environment to prompt certain responses, so too is the ability to inhibit fear when it's no longer needed.

Drug 'librarian' discovers new compound that may thwart common surgery complication

In a strategic search, scientists created and screened a library of 45,000 new compounds containing chemical elements of widely used immune system suppressants, and say they found one that may prevent reperfusion injury, a tissue-damaging and common complication of surgery, heart attack and stroke.

Powering a pacemaker with a patient's heartbeat

Implantable pacemakers have without doubt altered modern medicine, saving countless lives by regulating heart rhythm. But they have one serious shortcoming: Their batteries last only five to 12 years, at which point they have to be replaced surgically. Now, researchers have surmounted this issue by designing a pacemaker powered by the energy of heartbeats. The device was successfully tested in pigs, which have a similar physiology to humans.

Combining morning exercise with short walking breaks helps control blood pressure

Treadmill walking for 30 minutes in the morning lowered average blood pressure over an eight-hour day among older, overweight or obese men and women. Women who are overweight or obese enhanced the beneficial effects of morning exercise to reduce blood pressure by adding three-minute breaks from sitting every half hour throughout the day.

New compound could help treat ovarian cancer

Scientists have discovered a compound that could be more effective in treating certain cancers than standard chemotherapy.

Interacting with more people is shown to keep older adults more active

Researchers have found that older adults who spend more time interacting with a wide range of people were more likely to be physically active and had greater emotional well-being.

Computer simulators show how to reduce damage to lungs of children in intensive care

Changing the ventilation settings for children on life support can reduce the risk of damage to their lungs, researchers have found on computer simulated patients.

Peering inside the mind of the worm for clues on how memories form

A new study lays the ground for uncovering the molecular basis of memory blocking that has baffled scientists for decades.

How to block new antibiotic resistance gene

A new antimicrobial-resistance gene, VCC-1, a beta-lactamase gene, has been discovered in benign close relatives of virulent Vibrio cholerae, which causes cholera. Now, a team of Canadian researchers has found a way to block the VCC-1 enzyme, which disables that resistance gene.

Fluorescing urine signals organ transplant rejection, could replace needle biopsies

Glowing urine may replace the biopsy needle: In detecting organ transplant rejection, a new nanoparticle has proven much faster and more thorough in the lab than a biopsy. When T cells mount their first attack on the organ's cells, the nanoparticle sends an alarm signal into the urine that makes it fluoresce.

American women have better control of high blood pressure but are more obese than men

A study of more than 30,000 Americans since 2001 has revealed significant differences in management of heart disease risk between women and men.

T-cell receptor diversity may be key to treatment of follicular lymphoma, study finds

Healthy T-cells play a crucial role in how the body fights follicular lymphoma, according to a new study. T-cells are a key part of the immune system and protect the body by fighting infections and cancer.

Cervical microbiome may promote high-grade precancerous lesions

Infections with a Human Papillomavirus (HPV) cause 99 percent of cervical cancer cases, and the disease's first sign is often the appearance of precancerous lesions on a woman's cervix. But bacteria may play an important role, too. New research suggests that the cervical microbiome may influence HPV infection more than researchers previously thought.

Prenatal forest fire exposure stunts children's growth

Forest fires are more harmful than previously imagined, causing stunted growth in children who were exposed to smoke while in the womb, according to new research.

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